A number of Japanese merchants have made trading tours in Corea. Eight hundred Japanese now reside at Fusan, in Corea, and commerce is increasing.


The Japanese Government have made appropriations amounting to a sum between two and three hundred thousand dollars, and have sent full and efficient representatives from every department, especially from those of Education, War, Agriculture, and Public Works. The display of native art, gardening, mechanical, and natural productions is said to be finer even than in Philadelphia.


Protestant missionary operations in Japan began in 1859, shortly after the opening of the ports of Nagasaki and Kanagawa. The first missionary societies represented were: American - Episcopal, Presbyterian, [Dutch] Reformed, Baptist; and the London Missionary Society. The names of the pioneers were, Rev. John Liggins, Right Rev. C. M. Williams, Rev. S. R. Brown, D.D., Rev. Guido F. Verbeek, D.D., Rev. J. C. Hepburn, M.D., Rev. J. Goble, Rev. James H. Ballagh; Rev. D. Thompson, Rev. C. Ensor, Rev. H. Burnside. Other societies now represented are: American - Congregational, A.B.C.F.M. Woman's Union, F.M.S.; Methodist, U.S.A.; Lutheran; Canadian Wesleyan; Cumberland Presbyterian; British - The Church Missionary Society, and Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, United Presbyterian of Scotland. The American, British, and Scotch Bible Societies have also agents in this field.

For nearly ten years the missionaries were unable to make many disciples of the Christian faith, owing to the jealous hostility of the Government. The old anti-Christian edicts (pp. 259, 369) were strictly enforced, and a Japanese became a Christian, openly, at the risk of his life. The language was, however, being mastered, the work of teaching and healing engaged in, and translation carried on. The first Protestant Christian Church in Japan was organized in Yokohama, by the Rev. James H. Ballagh, of the American [Dutch] Reformed Church, March 10th, 1872. The church edifice, erected at a cost of $6000, stands on part of the Perry treaty ground (p. 348). Other churches were organized, the first in Tōkiō on September 3d, 1873, being the fourth in Japan. In 1873 the anti-Christian edicts were removed, and Christian churches were organized in the interior. The native churches gathered by the missionaries of the Presbyterian Church of the United States, of the Reformed [Dutch] Church in America, and the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland, are organized as one Japanese Christian Church, self-governing, and conformed to Japanese customs so far as they are innocent. The missionaries who are not members of the native Church, who meet with the native body only to advise it, have organized themselves as a Council. This body has only advisory power. These three societies employ 25 foreign agents; viz., 15 ordained missionaries, 2 physicians, 8 teachers. They have also the oversight of 3 native ordained ministers, 2 helpers, and 25 students in the Theological Seminary in Tōkiō. Statistics of the American Congregational (A.B.C.F.M.) are as follows: Work began in 1869. Their stations are at Kobé, Hiōgo, Sanda Ozaka. and Kiéto. They employ 42 American (12 ordained men, 4 not ordained, 26 women) and 6 native helpers, two of' whom, Rev. J. Neesima and Sawayama, are graduates of American colleges. They have 8 churches under their care, with 240 members, and 100 male students in the training schools, most of whom will enter the ministry. In the girl's schools are 40 pupils. Their opportunities and work are rapidly expanding.

The American Episcopal Church have 8 male and female missionaries in the field; 3 day-schools, and 2 Sunday-schools, with 52 and 55 pupils respectively. Two churches have over 30 members.

The American Methodists began work in 1873. The other societies operating in Japan have also churches, and a membership which will probably bring the total number (June, 1878) of churches at 40 churches, with a membership of over 1500. About 40 Sunday-schools are in operation, and the number of baptisms and marriages in Christian churches indicates a rapid change from the social forms of paganism toward those of Christianity. A large proportion of the male membership is from the samurai class, and most of the students training the ministry are educated young men, and so recognized among their own people. Protestant Christianity in Japan may fairly claim a following of many thousands among natives whose lives are influenced by Christian ideas, though their names are not, on the Church records as members. Beyond ordinary causes, the chief opposition to Christianity arises from the jealousy of Buddhist priests and Shintō officials. The literary hostility is not great, nor of a character to inspire respect for the Japanese intellect.

The Roman Catholics have missionaries, churches, or schools at most of the open ports, and claim a following of ten or twelve thousand. The Russian Greek Church have missiollaries and churches in Tōkiō and Hakodatō, and claim a following of live thousand. There are probably thirty thousand nominal Christians now in Japan.

Toleration of Christianity, except in the matter of interment of the dead with Christian rites, is now practically a fact in Japan, and Christian burial will doubtless soon be permitted without molestation.