Les longs ouvrages me font peur. Loin d'épuiser une matière, On n'en doit prendre que la fleur. (La Fontaine.)

PREFACE.

In the unlikely event of any one instituting a minute comparison between this edition and its predecessor, he would find minor alterations innumerable,-here a line erased, there a paragraph added, or again a figure changed, a statement qualified, a description or a list brought up to date. But take it altogether, the book remains the same as heretofore. It would seem to have found favour in many quarters, to judge from the manner in which, years after its first appearance, newspapers and book-makers continue to quote wholesale from it without acknowledgment; and the title, which cost us much cogitation, and which we borrowed ultimately from the Spanish phrase cosas de España, has passed into general use, even coming to supply titles for similar works written about other lands in imitation of this one

The article on Archæology contributed by Mr. W. G. Aston, C. M. G., to the second edition, and that on Geology by Prof. John Milne, F.R.S., remain untouched. Best thanks, once more, to these kind friends, as also to Mr. James Murdoch, Mr. H. V. Henson, Rev. Dr. D. C Greene, and Abbé J. N. Guérin, who have supplied information on points beyond the scope of our own knowledge. To Mr. W. B. Mason and to Mr. W. D. Cox we are under special obligations,-to the former for constant advice and assistance during the progress of the work, to the latter for revision of the proofs, a task of a different order of difficulty in this country from what it is at home with printers whose native language is English. The greater part of the index has been compiled by Mr. E. B. Clarke, of the First Higher School, TŌKYŌ.

Miyanoshita, November, 1904.

NOTE ON THE PRONUNCIATION OF JAPANESE WORDS.

Sound the vowels and diphthongs as in Italian, that is (approximately),

aas in "father." uas in "bush."
e" " "men." ai" the "y"of "my"
i " " "police." ei" the "ay" of "may"
o" " "for." au" the "ow" of "cow"

Distinguish long vowels front short, as in Latin; thus tori, "bird," but tōri, "street;" zutsu, "[one, etc.] at a time," but zutsū, "headache."

Sound the consonants as in English, noting only that g never has the "j" sound. At the beginning of a word it is pronounced as in "give;" in the middle it has the sound of English ng

Note, too, thatz before "u" is pronounced asdz, thus Kōzu (kō-dzu).

Consonants written double are distinctly pronounced double, as in Italian. Thus amma, "a shampooer," sounds quite different from ama, "a nun." (Compare such English words as "oneness," "shot-tower.")

There is little if any tonic accent, all syllables, except such as have long quantity, being, pronounced evenly and lightly, as in French, for instance, the word ama given above sounds almost exactly like the French word "amas," and would not be understood if pronounced like English "armour."